How can I quickly create a large file on Linux?
Normally dd command creates a large file but it reads from /dev/zero and then writes to drive which can take a long time to create a large file.
To overcome the speed issue you can use
fallocate command which will create a large file for you in no time.
However before we see how to create a large file, let’s see in what scenarios you will need a large file.
Testing this is the only reason you will ever need to create a large file. Most people, need large files to check the upload and download speed of the server. In some cases, people also create a large file to convert it to swap.
How to create a large file?
The first method is using the fallocate command.
The below command will create a 10GB file in no time. You can modify it as per your needs
$ fallocate -l 10GB /justgeek
[[email protected]/]# du -sh justgeek 9.4G justgeek
There are multiple other options that you can use with the fallocate command, you can try the help command to see all those options.
[[email protected]/]# fallocate --help Usage: fallocate [options] <filename> Preallocate space to, or deallocate space from a file. Options: -c, --collapse-range remove a range from the file -d, --dig-holes detect zeroes and replace with holes -i, --insert-range insert a hole at range, shifting existing data -l, --length <num> length for range operations, in bytes -n, --keep-size maintain the apparent size of the file -o, --offset <num> offset for range operations, in bytes -p, --punch-hole replace a range with a hole (implies -n) -z, --zero-range zero and ensure allocation of a range -x, --posix use posix_fallocate(3) instead of fallocate(2) -v, --verbose verbose mode -h, --help display this help -V, --version display version For more details see fallocate(1).
If you do not wish to use the fallocate command for some reason, you can always go ahead with the DD command to create the large file on the server.
DD command basically copies the data from
/dev/zero which is at the times slower, as I mentioned earlier.
$ dd if=/dev/zero of=justgeek.txt count=1024 bs=1024 1024+0 records in 1024+0 records out 1048576 bytes (1.0MB) copied, 0.012096 seconds, 82.7MB/s
The arguments are as follows:
ifis the input source
ofis the output file
countis the number of times to repeat a copy
bsis the size of the chunk that is copied on each step. (
bsstands for block size)
Now we’ve created a file that is 1MB. In
dd, you specify the size by multiplying the block size, 1024 (or 1k), by the count (1024).
So for an example you wanted to create a 1GB file you will do 1024 * 1024 i.e. 1048576
dd if=/dev/zero of=justgeek.txt count=1048576 bs=1024 1048576+0 records in 1048576+0 records out 1073741824 bytes (1.0GB) copied, 19.204383 seconds, 53.3MB/s
However, if you run cat on the justgeek.txt file you will see it’s empty.
ls -ltrah justgeek.txt -rw-r--r-- 1 justgeek UsersGrp 1.0G Jun 12 01:40 justgeek.txt
When you run the DD command, it is actually copying the contains
/dev/zero which is actually generating a series of null characters.
And just in case you want to create a file using random characters, instead of null characters then you can use
$ dd if=/dev/urandom of=justgeek.txt count=1048576 bs=1024 1048576+0 records in 1048576+0 records out 1073741824 bytes (1.0GB) copied, 19.974795 seconds, 51.3MB/s
As you saw in the post above, It’s easy to create a large file on Linux. Which you will use for your testing purpose.